Disease Models: Researchers often create animal models or in vitro (cell culture) models to mimic human diseases. These models are used to study disease development and test potential therapies.

Pathogenesis: Experimental pathology explores how diseases develop and progress at the cellular and molecular levels. This includes understanding the cellular changes, genetic mutations, and biochemical processes involved.

Immunology: Investigating the immune system's role in various diseases, including autoimmune diseases, allergies, and infections. This may include the study of immune responses, inflammation, and immune-related disorders.

Cancer Research: Examining the genetic and environmental factors that contribute to cancer development. Researchers study the transformation of normal cells into cancerous ones, tumor growth, metastasis, and potential treatments such as chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and targeted therapies.

Toxicology: Assessing the effects of toxins, chemicals, and drugs on living organisms. This involves studying the mechanisms of toxicity, dose-response relationships, and potential treatments for poisoning.

Infectious Diseases: Investigating the causes, transmission, and effects of pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, and parasites. Research in this area aims to understand how infectious diseases spread and how to prevent and treat them.

Cardiovascular Pathology: Focusing on diseases of the heart and blood vessels, including atherosclerosis, hypertension, heart failure, and arrhythmias. Researchers explore the underlying causes and potential interventions.

Neurological Disorders: Examining diseases of the nervous system, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and multiple sclerosis. Researchers investigate the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved and potential treatments.

Respiratory Diseases: Investigating conditions affecting the respiratory system, such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and lung cancer. Researchers study lung pathology and explore treatment options.

Gastrointestinal Pathology: Researching diseases of the digestive system, including conditions like inflammatory bowel disease, gastritis, and liver diseases. This may involve studying the effects of diet and the microbiome on gastrointestinal health.\

Reproductive Pathology: Examining disorders related to the male and female reproductive systems, infertility, sexually transmitted infections, and pregnancy complications.

Renal Pathology: Investigating diseases of the kidneys, such as nephritis, renal failure, and kidney stones. Research in this area aims to understand kidney function and dysfunction.

Molecular Pathology: Utilizing molecular techniques to study disease at the genetic and molecular level. This includes gene expression, DNA sequencing, and epigenetic studies.

Histopathology: Analyzing tissues and cells under a microscope to identify abnormalities, characterize diseases, and understand tissue changes.