Biochemical Principles:

The nature of biological molecules: Proteins, nucleic acids (DNA and RNA), lipids, carbohydrates.

Chemical properties of biological molecules: Structure, bonding, and reactivity.

Enzymes and enzyme kinetics: How enzymes catalyze biochemical reactions.


Metabolic pathways: Glycolysis, Krebs cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, and more.

Catabolism and anabolism: Breaking down and building up of biomolecules.

Regulation of metabolism: Hormones, feedback loops, and metabolic control.

Cell Biology:

Cellular organelles and their functions: Nucleus, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, etc.

Cell membrane structure and transport mechanisms.

Signal transduction pathways: How cells communicate and respond to stimuli.

Genetics and Molecular Biology:

DNA structure and replication.

RNA synthesis and processing.

Genetic information flow: Transcription, translation, and gene regulation.

DNA repair, recombination, and transposition.

Proteins and Enzymes:

Protein structure and folding.

Protein function and ligand binding.

Enzyme mechanisms and kinetics.

Protein purification and analysis.

Biochemical Techniques:

Various laboratory techniques used in biochemistry and molecular biology, such as gel electrophoresis, PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction), Western blotting, and mass spectrometry.


The use of computational methods and tools to analyze biological data, including sequence analysis, structural bioinformatics, and genomics.

Biological Macromolecules:

The structure and function of biological macromolecules, including DNA, RNA, proteins, and polysaccharides.

Biological Membranes:

Membrane structure, transport mechanisms, and signal transduction.

Molecular Genetics:

Study of gene structure, regulation, and expression.

Cell Signaling:

Cellular communication and signal transduction pathways.

Cancer Biology:

Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the development and progression of cancer.

Biochemical Pathways:

Detailed examination of metabolic and biochemical pathways in various organisms.

Biochemical Pharmacology:

The study of drugs and their interactions with biochemical processes in the body.

Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering:

Applications of biochemistry and molecular biology in genetic modification, biopharmaceuticals, and genetic testing.

Environmental Biochemistry:

The study of how biochemical processes influence the environment and ecosystem.